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DR Congo – Law 87-010 on the Family Code

Article 444 of the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Family Code of 1987 provides that a husband is head of the household Country: Democratic Republic of Congo Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law Type: Marriage, Divorce, Polygamy & ...

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Syria – The Penal Code

Country: Syria Law status: Repealed Law Type: Honor Killings Article 548 (amended in 2009 and 2011) of Syria’s Penal Code allows for a lesser punishment, capped at 7 years’ imprisonment, for men who kill their wives, sisters, mothers or ...

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China – The Labor Act (1994)

Chapter VII, Section 59 of China’s Labor Act (1994) automatically bars all women from engaging in mining, other forms of intense physical labor that the State specifies or other work that female workers “should avoid.” Country: China Law ...

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Libya – The Penal Code

Article 424. of Libya’s Penal Code provides that If the offender marries the woman against whom the offense is committed, the offense and penalty shall be extinguished and the penal effects thereof shall cease. Country: Libya Law ...

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Singapore – The Penal Code

Article 375 and 376A of Singapore’s Penal Code provide marital immunity for sexual activity with minors under the age of 16 who are said to “consent”. Country: Singapore Law status: Discriminatory law partially amended Law Type: Rape ...

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Paraguay – Penal Code

Article 137 of the Paraguay Penal Code provides a lower penalty for sexual offences against adolescent girls between the ages of 14 – 16 than for rape of a child or a woman. This provision is known as an ‘estupro’ provision. Estupro provisions too ...

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Iraq – Penal Code No. 111 of 1969

Article 41 of the Iraqi Penal Code No. 111 of 1969 gives a husband a legal right to punish his wife within certain limits prescribed by law or custom. Country: Iraq Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law Type: Domestic Violence Sex ...

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Egypt – Penal Code No. 58 of 1937

Article 237 of Egypt’s Penal Code No. 58 allows for a lesser punishment for men who kill their wives on discovering them in an act of adultery than for other forms of murder. Country: Egypt Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law ...

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Northern Nigeria – The Penal Code

Section 55(1)(d) of the Penal Code of Northern Nigeria provides that an assault by a man on a woman is not an offense if they are married, if native law or custom recognizes such “correction” as lawful, and if there is no grievous hurt. ...

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Oman – Personal Status Law, 1997

Articles 11 and 134 of Oman’s Personal Status Law of 1997 restrict the right of the child’s custodian (normally the mother) to travel abroad with the child without the approval of the guardian (who is required to be male). Country: Oman Law ...

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Zambia – The Marriage Act

When young girls are forced to marry, they face potentially lifelong harmful consequences. They are essentially subject to state-sanctioned rape and are at risk of increased domestic violence, forced pregnancy, and negative health consequences while being ...

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United States – Mississippi Code 1972

Section 93 of the Mississippi Code 1972 allows girls as young as 15 years old to be married with parental consent, while prohibiting the marriage of boys under the age of 17. Country: United States of America (Mississippi) Law status: Discriminatory ...

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Tunisia – Personal Status Code of 1956

Section 103 of Tunisia’s Personal Status Code limits daughters’ inheritance rights and provides that any sons inherit twice as much as daughters. Country: Tunisia Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law Type: Inheritance and Property ...

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Chile – The Civil Code

Article 1749 of Chile’s Civil Code establishes the legal presumption that husbands head the household and control marital property, as well as property owned by their wives. Country: Chile Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law ...

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Yemen – The Personal Status Act No. 20 of 1992

Article 23 of the Personal Status Act also requires express consent to marriage only if the woman has been previously married. For previously unmarried women, (considered ‘virgin’), silence is sufficient to indicate consent to marriage. This makes women ...

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Afghanistan – Shia Personal Status Law of 2009

Article 123 of Afghanistan’s Shia Personal Status Law of 2009 provides that the household’s supervision is solely the right of the husband and restricts a wife’s right to leave the home. Country: Afghanistan Law status: Discriminatory ...

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Indonesia – Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage

Article 3(1) of Indonesia’s Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage permits a man to have more than one wife.  Country: Indonesia Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law Type: Marriage, Divorce, Polygamy & Wife Obedience Sex discrimination ...

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Japan – The Civil Code

Article 733 of Japan’s Civil Code prohibits women, but not men, from remarrying for 100 days after the dissolution or annulment of a marriage. Articles 772 and 774 state that a child conceived by a woman born 200 days after marriage or within 300 days of ...

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Jordan – Personal Status Law No. 36 of 2010

Article 61 of Jordan’s Personal Status Law No. 36 of 2010 provides that a wife who works outside the home is entitled to alimony only if the husband has given explicit consent to the work. Country: Jordan Law status: Discriminatory law in force ...

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Kenya – The Marriage Act No. 4 of 2014

Sections 2, 3 and 6 of Kenya’s Marriage Act No. 4 of 2014 allow a man to have more than one wife. The Marriage Act No. 4 of 2014 Country: Kenya Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law Type: Marriage, Divorce, Polygamy & Wife Obedience ...

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Thailand – Criminal Code, B.E 2499 (1956)

Section 277 of Thailand’s Criminal Code, B.E 2499 (1956) provides marital immunity for sexual intercourse with girls under the age of 15 who are said to ‘consent’, and allows a man who rapes a girl between the ages of 13 to 15 to escape punishment by ...

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The Dominican Republic – The Civil Code

Article 144 of the Dominican Republic’s Civil Code allows girls as young as 15 years old to be married off but protects boys younger than 18 from entering into marriage. Country: Dominican Republic Law status: Amended Law Type: Marriage, ...

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Cuba – The Family Code

Article 3 of Cuba’s Family Code provides that girls may be married off as young as 14 years old, while requiring a boy to be at least 16 years old. Country: Cuba Law status: Discriminatory law in force Law Type: Marriage, Divorce, Polygamy ...

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