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Online Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in India

India is a growing technology hub. In 2019, it became the second most connected country in the world, with over 560 million internet users. As internet use in urban India increased during the pandemic, so did online violence on digital platforms, which ...

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Online Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Kenya

As one of Africa’s leaders on internet uptake, recording the highest internet penetration rate in Africa in 2020, Kenya’s laws are particularly important in protecting users against online sexual exploitation and abuse (OSEA). Among a population of 47.6 ...

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Online Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Nigeria

As one of Africa’s leaders on internet uptake with more than half of Nigeria’s population subscribing to the internet, Nigeria’s laws are of particular importance in protecting users against online sexual exploitation and abuse (OSEA). While Nigeria has ...

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Statute of Limitations

A statute of limitations is a law that sets the amount of time (usually specified in years) that a victim has to come forward and report a crime before prosecution is no longer possible. Applied to sexual violence cases, statutes of limitations add an ...

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Understanding Estupro

The crime of estupro usually describes cases in which an adult has sexual relations with a minor above the legal age of consent by means of seduction or deceit. This discriminatory law mislabels rape and contributes to impunity for rapists as it ignores the ...

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Consent-based Rape Definitions

Definitions of rape need to be based on voluntary, genuine, and willing consent and recognize a broad range of coercive circumstances where consent cannot be voluntary, genuine, or willing and where the victim is incapable of giving consent. Concerningly, ...

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FGM in the Asia Pacific Region in detail

AUSTRALIA Indirect estimates indicate that there are 53,088 survivors of FGM/C living in Australia. BRUNEI DARUSSALAM The Government of Brunei has confirmed that Type I FGM/C is practiced in the country. Though no specific prevalence rates are available, ...

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FGM in the Middle East in detail

BAHRAIN – There is anecdotal evidence of FGM/C occurring in Bahrain, but the evidence available is scarce.  IRAN – FGM/C in Iran is known to be concentrated among the Kurdish community and the Sunni minority communities in Iran, largely in ...

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FGM in Europe in detail

AUSTRIA – Indirect estimates indicate 7,036 women and girls who have undergone FGM/C.  BELGIUM –  Indirect estimates indicate 17,575 women and girls who have undergone FGM/C, with a further 8,342 at risk.  BULGARIA – Indirect ...

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